Drought resistant succulent plants are a special variety of plants that share similarities throughout their genera and families.
In their natural habitat this plant type grows well in dry environments with little rainfall. This is why they produce leaves or organs that store water, preventing death when rainfall is non-existent for a period of time.
Common features for many include fleshy leaves or stems that function to store water, smaller roots than other plant types (not all species though), propagation methods (offsets, leaf cuttings, mainly) and rosette in shape (circular arrangement of leaves from the center stem - but others are bushy).
Not all succulents have the same features as mentioned above. You must read about each species individually.
For more detailed information about genera, origin, habitat etc take a look at this wiki article - it's very in depth and provides many links to other sources.
For each plant species it's best to follow care instructions specifically for that plant. However, here is some basic and comparable care advice you may find useful.
Temperature: Most homes in temperate regions are more than suitable to grow a succulent house plant. The great thing about these is they will survive well when temperatures drop during winter and at night (they actually enjoy the drops at night). Lower than 40ºF (4.4ºC) should be avoided, which most homes never experience anyway.
Lighting: Most succulents are sun lovers and enjoy being placed near a south facing window. They still grow in shaded spots although slower.
Watering: This is where many growers go wrong and is probably the worst succulent plant death offender. DONT overwater. Let the soil dry out between watering - during winter you may only need to water monthly. The soil might look dry or you may think they have not had enough water for so long, but remember those fleshy thick leaves have plenty in storage. Overwatering in winter because of the cold will cause a plant to rot and possibly die.
Soil: It's essential a grower uses soil that drains well and is well aerated. Poor soil not draining well can cause severe rot problems.
That's the main areas covered for many succulent species. They are very tough plants and survive neglect...keep it in mind that many suffer more because of too much rather than too little.
You can and your plants will enjoy being outside during summer. As mentioned above they will manage the drops in overnight temperatures, well actually enjoy the drops.